Privacy

There are a number of data security policies and procedures in place to protect data and research integrity using computer environments such as cloud computing, mobile devices and data storage systems.
    
Indeed, addressing modern data protection issues and protecting data protection rights is a global trend. Privacy breaches keep making headlines, and people understand that they are losing control of their personal data. 
    
Many countries, including Brazil, India and New Zealand, are adopting new privacy policies or strengthening existing laws to regulate how personal data can be collected, stored, used, disclosed or transmitted. Here are some US federal privacy laws that prevent companies from targeting certain types of data. Some of the best known of these laws are the Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. New York's updated Breaking Law has extraterritorial reach, regardless of whether it owns or licenses businesses in the US, so PII of NYS residents would fall under the law.
    
In particular, unregulated e-commerce companies must comply with new security rules which have been added to protect data. In language often used in federal law, companies are required to develop, implement, and maintain "adequate safeguards" that protect private information, including, but not limited to, the removal of data, and that must be respected. 
    
While these specific controls can help to put in place a PII protection strategy, the protection of PIIs should be the guiding objective of all companies.
    
The same principles that can be used to protect PII will also protect organizations from other risks and vulnerabilities. To put it in NIST 800-53 terms, an organization cannot have effective privacy without effective security. As we enter the 2020s, make sure that your employees are aware of the tools and policies they need to comply with regulations and protect these vital assets.
    
A good way to protect your data is to be aware of your company's privacy policies, policies and procedures, as well as the privacy policies of your employees.
    
Some services add an additional layer of security by using a password, such as two-factor authentication or multi-factor authentication. Two-factor authentication asks you to enter a username and password with two additional authentication methods (such as a fingerprint, PIN or credit card number). With multifactor authentication, you may be prompted to enter more than one of two or more of these additional authentication methods before entering your username or password.
    
Although PII contains several formal definitions, it can be considered information that can be used either alone or with other information to identify, contact, or locate a particular person. This information may use information to distinguish an individual's identity, or use it to deanonymize anonymous data. The information is also classified as "PII" by the FBI and other law enforcement agencies. 
    
More commonly known by the acronym PII, personally identifiable information can be defined as any data that is directly or indirectly related to a person that can be used to determine that person's identity. In the age of technology, the definition of "PII" is broadening to include other types of information, such as Social Security numbers, dates of birth, and other personal information. Once you understand the concept of PII, your organization will understand how to use information security to correctly store and manage your PII data. Some examples are the use of social media, email, social networks or other forms of online communication. Open Source Intelligence, also known as OSINT, is also a useful technique which can be used in finding PII data on the web.
    
Generally, PII does not contain publicly available information that is lawfully available in federal, state or local governments, though may be obtained from such if sensitive information is not redacted. 
    
Data plans must also comply with the data security protection requirements of a certain type. Other technical considerations, although not always necessary, include the use of data encryption, data retention and data protection policies and procedures.
    
The protection of PII under GDPR means that companies should carry out a risk assessment, including vulnerability scans and penetration tests. These can be internal or external and, once the assessment is complete, companies will have a better understanding of what threatens the protection of their stored goods in transit PII.